Refined wheat flour, commonly known as all-purpose flour, is more popular than whole wheat flour in most industrialized countries, but lower in fiber. To increase fiber in refined flour, University of California, Davis researchers, led by Dr. Jorge Dubcovsky, are investigating ways to increase wheat dietary fiber using modified starch synthesis enzymes. The first generation of wheat varieties with increased dietary fiber in the plant’s starch showed reduced grain yield, making the grain more costly for consumers.
Dr. Dubcovsky’s team is developing a second generation of wheat varieties with high fiber in the refined flour but with a higher grain yield. Using genetic tools and molecular markers the researchers are identifying genes responsible for wheat yield, quality and fiber content. With this information, the researchers are testing combinations of wheat genetics, environmental conditions and growing practices that encourage high-yield and high-fiber crops.
“Most of the refined flour is starch, so the trick is to hide the fiber in the starch,” said Dr. Dubcovsky. “We increased the relative amount of ‘resistant-starch,’ which is not digested in the small intestine and works as dietary fiber. We are now combining modern and traditional breeding methods to improve the grain yield of the high-resistant-starch varieties, to make this healthy product more affordable to consumers.”
Ultimately, the researchers are encouraging fiber consumption by developing productive high-fiber wheat varieties with higher yields and lower costs, while maintaining flavor and quality. This research offers consumers a healthy alternative to refined products.
About the Foundation for Food & Agriculture Research
The Foundation for Food & Agriculture Research, a 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organization established by bipartisan congressional support in the 2014 Farm Bill, builds unique partnerships to support innovative and actionable science addressing today’s food and agriculture challenges. FFAR leverages public and private resources to increase the scientific and technological research, innovation and partnerships critical to enhancing sustainable production of nutritious food for a growing global population. The FFAR Board of Directors is chaired by Mississippi State University President Mark Keenum and includes ex officio representation from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and National Science Foundation.
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